Prostate cancer follow-up care is in need of a more sustainable follow-up care model due to the increasing number of prostate cancer survivors and the demands to improve its quality and efficiency. Currently, in most Western countries, prostate cancer survivors are included in a hospital-based follow-up care program. The Dutch Cancer Society funded a prospective, randomized, multicenter study (PROSPEC: PROstate cancer follow-up care in Secondary and Primary hEalth Care) that compares the (cost-)effectiveness of specialist- (usual care) versus primary care-based (intervention) follow-up care of patients who have completed their primary treatment (prostatectomy or radiotherapy) for localized prostate cancer. In total, 402 localized prostate cancer patients were recruited from 12 hospitals across different regions in the Netherlands, and randomly (1:1) allocated to specialist-based or primary care-based follow-up care. The results of the trial will be reported when the 2-year follow-up has been completed (expected in 2023).