Azacitidine (Vidaza<sup>®</sup>) in Pediatric Patients with Relapsed Advanced MDS and JMML: Results of a Phase I/II Study by the ITCC Consortium and the EWOG-MDS Group (Study ITCC-015).



Patients enrolled from June 2013 to March 2019 received azacitidine intravenously/subcutaneously once daily on days 1-7 of a 28-day cycle. The MDS and JMML cohorts followed a two-stage design separately, with a safety run-in for JMML. Response and safety data were used to evaluate efficacy and establish the recommended dose. Pharmacokinetics was also analyzed. The study closed prematurely because of low recruitment.


Advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are rare hematological malignancies in children. A second allograft is recommended if a relapse occurs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but the outcome is poor.


Azacitidine 75 mg/m2 prior to a second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is safe in children with relapsed MDS/JMML. Although the long-term advantage remains to be assessed, this study suggests that azacitidine is an efficacious option for relapsed JMML.


We conducted a phase I/II multicenter study to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of azacitidine in children with relapsed MDS/JMML prior to the second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Six patients with MDS and four patients with JMML received a median of three and five cycles, respectively. Azacitidine 75 mg/m2 was well tolerated and plasma concentration-time profiles were similar to observed in adults. The most prevalent grade 3-4 adverse event was myelotoxicity. No responses were seen in patients with MDS, but 83% achieved stable disease; four patients underwent an allotransplant. Overall response rate in the JMML cohort was 75% (two complete responses; one partial response) and all responders underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. One-year overall survival was 67% (95% confidence interval 38-100) in MDS and 50% (95% confidence interval 19-100) in JMML.


EudraCT 2010-022235-10.

More about this publication

Paediatric drugs
  • Volume 25
  • Issue nr. 6
  • Pages 719-728
  • Publication date 01-11-2023

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