The increasing burden of testicular seminomas and non-seminomas in adolescents and young adults (AYAs): incidence, treatment, disease-specific survival and mortality trends in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2019.



Testicular cancer incidence among adolescents and young adults (AYAs, aged 18-39 years at diagnosis) is increasing worldwide and most patients will survive the initial disease. Still, detailed epidemiological information about testicular cancer among AYAs is scarce. This study aimed to provide a detailed overview of testicular cancer trends in incidence, treatment, long-term relative survival and mortality by histological subtype among AYAs diagnosed in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2019.


The incidence of seminoma and non-seminoma testicular cancers significantly increased in AYAs in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2019. There was a shift towards less-aggressive treatment regimens without negative survival effects. Relative survival estimates remained well above 90% at 20 years of follow-up in most cases. Testicular cancer mortality was already low, but has improved further over time, which makes survivorship care an important issue for these young adults.


A total of 12 528 testicular cancers were diagnosed between 1989 and 2019. Comparing 1989-1999 to 2010-2019, the incidence increased from 4.4 to 11.4 for seminomas and from 5.7 to 11.1 per 100 000 person-years for non-seminomas. Rising trends were most prominent for localized disease. Radiotherapy use in localized testicular seminomas declined from 78% in 1989-1993 to 5% in 2015-2019. Meanwhile, there was a slight increase in chemotherapy use. Most AYAs with localized seminomas and non-seminomas received active surveillance only (>80%). Overall, relative survival estimates remained well above 90% even at 20 years of follow-up for both seminomas and non-seminomas. Mortality rates declined from 0.5 to 0.4 per 100 000 person-years between 1989-1999 and 2010-2019.


Data of all malignant testicular cancers (ICD-code C62) were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Mortality data were retrieved from Statistics Netherlands. European age-standardized incidence and mortality rates with average annual percentage change statistics and relative survival estimates up to 20 years of follow-up were calculated.

More about this publication

ESMO open
  • Volume 9
  • Issue nr. 2
  • Pages 102231
  • Publication date 01-02-2024

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