Tumor organoids have been proposed as a model system for precision medicine. The ability of tumor organoids to retain characteristics of the original tumor makes them unique for cancer research on an individual patient level. Hence, the idea to use tumor organoids for clinical decision making and optimize patient outcome is tempting. In vitro responses of tumor organoids to a wide array of drugs have been positively correlated to patient responses. However, substantial challenges remain and prospective studies with large cohorts are highly needed before implementation in clinical cancer care can be considered. Because of their personalized characteristics and the immediate link with patient data, tumor organoids also have great potential in preclinical research. Here, we provide a critical overview of both clinical and preclinical advances using tumor organoids.