A hybrid registration method using the mandibular bone surface for electromagnetic navigation in mandibular surgery.



Three mandible phantoms with reference notches on two osteotomy planes were 3D printed. An electromagnetic tracking system in combination with 3D Slicer software was used for navigation. Different configurations, i.e., different surface point areas and number and configuration of surface points, were tested with a dentate phantom (A) in a metal-free environment. To simulate the intraoperative environment and different anatomies, the registration procedure was also performed with an OR bed using the dentate phantom and two (partially) edentulous phantoms with atypical anatomy (B and C). The accuracy of the registration was calculated using the notches on the osteotomy planes and was expressed as the target registration error (TRE). TRE values of less than 2.0 mm were considered as clinically acceptable.


Hybrid registration is a noninvasive method that requires only a small area of the bare mandibular bone surface to obtain high accuracy in phantom setting. Future studies should test this method in clinical setting during actual surgery.


In all experiments, the mean TRE was less than 2.0 mm. No differences were found using different surface point areas or number or configurations of surface points. Registration accuracy in the simulated intraoperative setting was-mean (SD)-0.96 (0.22), 0.93 (0.26), and 1.50 (0.28) mm for phantom A, phantom B, and phantom C.


To utilize navigated mandibular (reconstructive) surgery, accurate registration of the preoperative CT scan with the actual patient in the operating room (OR) is required. In this phantom study, the feasibility of a noninvasive hybrid registration method is assessed. This method consists of a point registration with anatomic landmarks for initialization and a surface registration using the bare mandibular bone surface for optimization.

More about this publication

International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery
  • Volume 17
  • Issue nr. 7
  • Pages 1343-1353
  • Publication date 01-07-2022

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