E-cadherin is a key regulator of epithelial cell-cell adhesion, the loss of which accelerates tumor growth and invasion. E-cadherin is also expressed in hematopoietic cells as well as epithelia. The function of hematopoietic E-cadherin is, however, mostly elusive. In this study, we explored the validity of mouse models to functionally investigate the role of hematopoietic E-cadherin in human hematopoiesis. We generated a hematopoietic-specific E-cadherin knockout mouse model. In mice, hematopoietic E-cadherin is predominantly expressed within the basophil lineage, the expression of which is dispensable for the generation of basophils. However, neither E-cadherin mRNA nor protein were detected in human basophils. In contrast, human hematopoietic E-cadherin marks the erythroid lineage. E-cadherin expression in hematopoiesis thereby revealed striking evolutionary differences between the basophil and erythroid cell lineage in humans and mice. This is remarkable as E-cadherin expression in epithelia is highly conserved among vertebrates including humans and mice. Our study therefore revealed that the mouse does not represent a suitable model to study the function of E-cadherin in human hematopoiesis and an alternative means to study the role of E-cadherin in human erythropoiesis needs to be developed.