OX40 agonism enhances PD-L1 checkpoint blockade by shifting the cytotoxic T cell differentiation spectrum.


Immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) has the power to eradicate cancer, but the mechanisms that determine effective therapy-induced immune responses are not fully understood. Here, using high-dimensional single-cell profiling, we interrogate whether the landscape of T cell states in the peripheral blood predict responses to combinatorial targeting of the OX40 costimulatory and PD-1 inhibitory pathways. Single-cell RNA sequencing and mass cytometry expose systemic and dynamic activation states of therapy-responsive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in tumor-bearing mice with expression of distinct natural killer (NK) cell receptors, granzymes, and chemokines/chemokine receptors. Moreover, similar NK cell receptor-expressing CD8+ T cells are also detected in the blood of immunotherapy-responsive cancer patients. Targeting the NK cell and chemokine receptors in tumor-bearing mice shows the functional importance of these receptors for therapy-induced anti-tumor immunity. These findings provide a better understanding of ICT and highlight the use and targeting of dynamic biomarkers on T cells to improve cancer immunotherapy.

More about this publication

Cell reports. Medicine
  • Volume 4
  • Issue nr. 3
  • Pages 100939
  • Publication date 21-03-2023

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