Hepatic arterial infusion pump chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy for borderline resectable and unresectable colorectal liver metastases: phase II feasibility study.



This was a single-arm phase II study of patients with CRLMs who received HAIP-SYS consisting of floxuridine with concomitant systemic FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Main inclusion and exclusion criteria were borderline resectable or unresectable liver-only metastases, suitable arterial anatomy and no previous local treatment. Patients underwent laparotomy for pump implantation and primary tumour resection if in situ. Primary end point was feasibility, defined as ≥70% of patients completing two cycles of HAIP-SYS. Sample size calculations led to 31 patients. Secondary outcomes included safety and tumour response.


Thirty-one patients with median 13 CRLMs (i.q.r. 6-23) were included. Twenty-eight patients (90%) received two HAIP-SYS cycles. Three patients did not get two cycles due to extrahepatic disease at pump placement, definitive pathology of a recto-sigmoidal squamous cell carcinoma, and progressive disease. Five patients experienced grade 3 surgical or pump device-related complications (16%) and 11 patients experienced grade ≥3 chemotherapy toxicity (38%). At first radiological evaluation, disease control rate was 83% (24/29 patients) and hepatic disease control rate 93% (27/29 patients). At 6 months, 19 patients (66%) had experienced grade ≥3 chemotherapy toxicity and the disease control rate was 79%.


Hepatic arterial infusion pump chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy (HAIP-SYS) for liver-only colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) has shown promising results but has not been adopted worldwide. This study evaluated the feasibility of HAIP-SYS in the Netherlands.


HAIP-SYS for borderline resectable and unresectable CRLMs was feasible and safe in the Netherlands. This has led to a successive multicentre phase III randomized trial investigating oncological benefit (EUDRA-CT 2023-506194-35-00). Current trial registration number: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04552093).

More about this publication

The British journal of surgery
  • Volume 111
  • Issue nr. 4
  • Publication date 03-04-2024

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