We show the discriminatory power of each of the signals and demonstrate a sensitivity of 0.87 and a specificity of 0.95 using four CARS wavelengths in combination with SHG and TPF. We verify that the information is independent of sample treatment.
In breast-preserving tumor surgery, the inspection of the excised tissue boundaries for tumor residue is too slow to provide feedback during the surgery. The discovery of positive margins requires a new surgery which is difficult and associated with low success. If the re-excision could be done immediately this is believed to improve the success rate considerably.
Nonlinear multispectral imaging can be used to accurately determine tumor boundaries. This demonstration using microscopy in the epi-direction directly on thick tissue slices brings this technology one step closer to clinical implementation.
We demonstrate the combination of three nonlinear imaging techniques at selected wavelengths to delineate tumor boundaries. We use hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF) on excised patient tissue.
Our aim is for a fast microscopic analysis that can be done directly on the excised tissue in or near the operating theatre.