To determine PTV margins for intrafraction motion in MRI-guided online adaptive radiotherapy for rectal cancer and the potential benefit of performing a 2nd adaptation prior to irradiation.
We studied the potential benefit of intrafraction motion monitoring and a 2nd adaptation to reduce PTV margins in online adaptive MRIgRT in rectal cancer. Performing 2nd adaptations immediately after online replanning when motion exceeded 1 mm and 4 mm for CTVmeso and GTVprim respectively, could result in a 30-50% margin reduction with limited reduction of dose to the bowel.
Thirty patients with rectal cancer received radiotherapy on a 1.5 T MR-Linac. On T2-weighted images for adaptation (MRIadapt), verification prior to (MRIver) and after irradiation (MRIpost) of 5 treatment fractions per patient, the primary tumor GTV (GTVprim) and mesorectum CTV (CTVmeso) were delineated. The structures on MRIadapt were expanded to corresponding PTVs. We determined the required expansion margins such that on average over 5 fractions, 98% of CTVmeso and 95% of GTVprim on MRIpost was covered in 90% of the patients. Furthermore, we studied the benefit of an additional adaptation, just prior to irradiation, by evaluating the coverage between the structures on MRIver and MRIpost. A threshold to assess the need for a secondary adaptation was determined by considering the overlap between MRIadapt and MRIver. RESULTS: PTV margins for intrafraction motion without 2nd adaptation were 6.4 mm in the anterior direction and 4.0 mm in all other directions for CTVmeso and 5.0 mm isotropically for GTVprim. A 2nd adaptation, applied for all fractions where the motion between MRIadapt and MRIver exceeded 1 mm (36% of the fractions) would result in a reduction of the PTVmeso margin to 3.2 mm/2.0 mm. For PTVprim a margin reduction to 3.5 mm is feasible when a 2nd adaptation is performed in fractions where the motion exceeded 4 mm (17% of the fractions).