The second Kidney Cancer Research Summit was held virtually in October 2020. The meeting gathered worldwide experts in the field of kidney cancer, including basic, translational, and clinical scientists as well as patient advocates. Novel studies were presented, addressing areas of unmet need related to different topics. These include novel metabolic targets, promising immunotherapeutic regimens, predictive genomic and transcriptomic biomarkers, and variant histologies of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). With the development of pioneering technologies, and an unprecedented commitment to kidney cancer research, the field has tremendously evolved. This perspective aims to summarize the different sessions of the conference, outline major advances in the understanding of RCC and discuss current challenges faced by the field.