Surgery for locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) results in 30‒50% five-year overall survival. In IMCISION (NCT03003637), a non-randomized phase Ib/IIa trial, 32 HNSCC patients are treated with 2 doses (in weeks 1 and 3) of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) using nivolumab (NIVO MONO, n = 6, phase Ib arm A) or nivolumab plus a single dose of ipilimumab (COMBO, n = 26, 6 in phase Ib arm B, and 20 in phase IIa) prior to surgery. Primary endpoints are feasibility to resect no later than week 6 (phase Ib) and primary tumor pathological response (phase IIa). Surgery is not delayed or suspended for any patient in phase Ib, meeting the primary endpoint. Grade 3‒4 immune-related adverse events are seen in 2 of 6 (33%) NIVO MONO and 10 of 26 (38%) total COMBO patients. Pathological response, defined as the %-change in primary tumor viable tumor cell percentage from baseline biopsy to on-treatment resection, is evaluable in 17/20 phase IIa patients and 29/32 total trial patients (6/6 NIVO MONO, 23/26 COMBO). We observe a major pathological response (MPR, 90‒100% response) in 35% of patients after COMBO ICB, both in phase IIa (6/17) and in the whole trial (8/23), meeting the phase IIa primary endpoint threshold of 10%. NIVO MONO's MPR rate is 17% (1/6). None of the MPR patients develop recurrent HSNCC during 24.0 months median postsurgical follow-up. FDG-PET-based total lesion glycolysis identifies MPR patients prior to surgery. A baseline AID/APOBEC-associated mutational profile and an on-treatment decrease in hypoxia RNA signature are observed in MPR patients. Our data indicate that neoadjuvant COMBO ICB is feasible and encouragingly efficacious in HNSCC.