Factors Associated With Local Tumor Control and Complications After Thermal Ablation of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: A 15-year Retrospective Cohort Study.



The median follow-up was 31 months. There was no LTP for MM > 10 mm. Smaller tumor size, increased MM, and prior hepatectomy correlated with longer LTPFS. The major complications occurred following 28 (7%) of 378 procedures. There were no biliary complications in HAI-naive patients, versus 11% in HAI patients (P < .001), of which 7% were major. Biliary complications predictors in HAI patients included biliary dilatation, bevacizumab, and MM > 10 mm. In HAI patients, ablation with 6 to 10 mm and > 10 mm MM resulted in major biliary complication rates of 4% and 21% (P = .0011), with corresponding LTP rates of 24% and 0% (P = .0033). In HAI-naive patients, the LTP rates for 6 to 10 mm and > 10 mm MM were 27% and 0%, respectively.


This retrospective analysis included 286 patients with 415 CLM undergoing TA (radiofrequency and microwave ablation) in 378 procedures from January 2003 to July 2017. Prior hepatic artery infusion (HAI), bevacizumab, pre-existing biliary dilatation, ablation modality, minimal ablation margin (MM), prior hepatectomy, CLM number, and size were analyzed as factors influencing complications and LTPFS. Statistical analysis included the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards model, competing risk analysis, univariate/multivariate logistic/exact logistic regressions, and the Fisher exact test. Complications were reported according to modified Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines.


No LTP was seen for MM > 10 mm. Biliary complications occurred only in HAI patients, especially in those with biliary dilatation, bevacizumab, and MM > 10 mm. In HAI patients, MM of 6 to 10 mm resulted in 76% local tumor control and 4% major biliary complications incidence.


The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with local tumor progression-free survival (LTPFS) and complications after colorectal liver metastases (CLM) thermal ablation (TA).

More about this publication

Clinical colorectal cancer
  • Volume 20
  • Issue nr. 2
  • Pages e82-e95
  • Publication date 01-06-2021

This site uses cookies

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website.