Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate the new European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Thyroid Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-THY34). Methods: We enrolled 437 thyroid cancer patients from 17 countries. One group (n = 303), undergoing treatment or best supportive care, completed the questionnaires at three time points (before therapy [t1], 6 weeks later [t2], and 6 months after t2 [t3]). A second group (survivors ≥2 years after diagnosis, n = 134) completed it at a random baseline time point and a second time 1 week later. We determined internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha), the scale structure (with confirmatory factor analysis), and discriminant validity (using known-group comparisons). Group 1 data were used to assess responsiveness and group 2 data to determine test-retest reliability using intra-class correlations (ICC). Results: All 34 items fulfilled the criteria to be kept in the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was >0.70 in 8 of the 9 multi-item scales. All standardized factor loadings exceeded 0.40, confirming the proposed scale structure. The ICC was >0.70 in all scales expressing good test-retest reliability. Differences in scale scores between patients with different histology were >5 points in all scales. In all but one of the pre-specified scales (Dry Mouth), changes over time were ≥|4| points between at least two time points. Conclusion: The EORTC QLQ-THY34 with its 9 multi-item and 8 single-item scales is a reliable and valid tool to measure quality of life in thyroid cancer patients and can be used in future trials and studies.