The PSMC3IP-MND1 heterodimer promotes meiotic D loop formation before DNA strand exchange. In genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis and interference screens in mitotic cells, depletion of PSMC3IP or MND1 causes sensitivity to poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) used in cancer treatment. PSMC3IP or MND1 depletion also causes ionizing radiation sensitivity. These effects are independent of PSMC3IP/MND1's role in mitotic alternative lengthening of telomeres. PSMC3IP- or MND1-depleted cells accumulate toxic RAD51 foci in response to DNA damage, show impaired homology-directed DNA repair, and become PARPi sensitive, even in cells lacking both BRCA1 and TP53BP1. Epistasis between PSMC3IP-MND1 and BRCA1/BRCA2 defects suggest that abrogated D loop formation is the cause of PARPi sensitivity. Wild-type PSMC3IP reverses PARPi sensitivity, whereas a PSMC3IP p.Glu201del mutant associated with D loop defects and ovarian dysgenesis does not. These observations suggest that meiotic proteins such as MND1 and PSMC3IP have a greater role in mitotic DNA repair.