GEP-NET radiomics: a systematic review and radiomics quality score assessment.



Although radiomics for GEP-NETs is still a relatively new area, some promising models have been developed. Future research should focus on developing robust models for clinically relevant aims such as prediction of response or long-term outcome in GEP-NET, since evidence for these aims is still scarce.


PubMed, Embase, and Wiley/Cochrane Library databases were searched and a forward and backward reference check of the identified studies was executed. Inclusion criteria were (1) patients with GEP-NETs and (2) radiomics analysis on CT, MRI or PET. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility and assessed methodological quality with the radiomics quality score (RQS) and extracted outcome data.


The number of radiomics studies in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) is rapidly increasing. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of the available evidence of radiomics for clinical outcome measures in GEP-NETs, to understand which applications hold the most promise and which areas lack evidence.


In total, 1364 unique studies were identified and 45 were included for analysis. Most studies focused on GEP-NET grade and differential diagnosis of GEP-NETs from other neoplasms, while only a minority analysed treatment response or long-term outcomes. Several studies were able to predict tumour grade or to differentiate GEP-NETs from other lesions with a good performance (AUCs 0.74-0.96 and AUCs 0.80-0.99, respectively). Only one study developed a model to predict recurrence in pancreas NETs (AUC 0.77). The included studies reached a mean RQS of 18%.


• The majority of radiomics studies in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours is of low quality. • Most evidence for radiomics is available for the identification of tumour grade or differentiation of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours from other neoplasms. • Radiomics for the prediction of response or long-term outcome in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours warrants further research.

More about this publication

European radiology
  • Volume 32
  • Issue nr. 10
  • Pages 7278-7294
  • Publication date 01-10-2022

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