Kinematic analysis helped quantifying the visual assessment of the needle trajectories. Compared to US-guidance, novices yielded most improvements using Reg (PSavg(US) = 0.43 vs. PSavg(US+Reg) = 0.57 vs. PSavg(US+Reg+Nav) = 0.51). Interestingly, the expert group yielded a reversed trend (PSavg(US) = 0.71 vs PSavg(US+Reg) = 0.58 vs PSavg(US+Reg+Nav) = 0.59).
Using a custom biopsy phantom, three consecutive exercises were performed by both novices and experts (n = 26). The exercise came in three options: (1) US-guidance, (2) US-guidance with pre-interventional image-registration (US + Reg) and (3) US-guidance with pre-interventional image-registration and needle-navigation (US + Reg + Nav). The traveled paths of the needle were digitized in 3D. Using custom software algorithms, kinematic metrics were extracted and related to dexterity, decision making indices to obtain overall performance scores (PS).
Digitizing the movement trajectory allowed us to objectively assess the impact of needle-navigation strategies on percutaneous procedures. In particular, our findings suggest that these advanced technologies have a positive impact on the kinematics derived performance of novices.
Navigational strategies create a scenario whereby percutaneous needle-based interventions of the liver can be guided using both pre-interventional 3D imaging datasets and dynamic interventional ultrasound (US). To score how such technologies impact the needle placement process, we performed kinematic analysis on different user groups.