Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has heralded a new era in cancer therapy. Research into the mechanisms underlying response to ICB has predominantly focused on T cells; however, effective immune responses require tightly regulated crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune cells. Here, we combine unbiased analysis of blood and tumors from metastatic breast cancer patients treated with ICB with mechanistic studies in mouse models of breast cancer. We observe an increase in systemic and intratumoral eosinophils in patients and mice responding to ICB treatment. Mechanistically, ICB increased IL-5 production by CD4+ T cells, stimulating elevated eosinophil production from the bone marrow, leading to systemic eosinophil expansion. Additional induction of IL-33 by ICB-cisplatin combination or recombinant IL-33 promotes intratumoral eosinophil infiltration and eosinophil-dependent CD8+ T cell activation to enhance ICB response. This work demonstrates the critical role of eosinophils in ICB response and provides proof-of-principle for eosinophil engagement to enhance ICB efficacy.