Transgenic mice bearing the pim-1 gene supplemented with an upstream immunoglobulin enhancer and a downstream murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat express pim-1 mRNA at high levels in both B and T cells. Between 5% and 10% of the pim-1 transgenic mice develop clonal T cell lymphomas before 7 months of age, whereas none of the age-matched control mice do, providing direct evidence for the oncogenic potential of pim-1. Histological examination and FACS analysis revealed no abnormalities in hematopoietic tissues of disease-free pim-1 transgenic mice. When newborn pim-1 transgenic mice are infected with MuLV, T cell lymphomas develop much faster (latency 7-8 weeks) than in nontransgenic mice (latency 22 weeks). In all these T cell lymphomas either c-myc or N-myc was activated by proviral insertion, suggesting strong cooperation between pim-1 and myc in lymphomagenesis.