Patients with early-stage HER2-overexpressing breast cancer struggle with treatment resistance in 20%-40% of cases. More information is needed to predict HER2 therapy response and resistance in vivo. In this study, we perform (phospho)proteomics analysis of pre-treatment HER2+ needle biopsies of early-stage invasive breast cancer to identify molecular signatures predictive of treatment response to trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and chemotherapy. Our data show that accurate quantification of the estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 biomarkers, combined with the assessment of associated biological features, has the potential to enable better treatment outcome prediction. In addition, we identify cellular mechanisms that potentially precondition tumors to resist therapy. We find proteins with expression changes that correlate with resistance and constitute to a strong predictive signature for treatment success in our patient cohort. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of drug resistance in vivo and demonstrate the necessity of deep tumor profiling.