Many non-central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors experience cognitive symptoms, which may affect their self-perceived work ability. Little is known about trajectories of self-perceived cognitive functioning in cancer survivors in the period after work disability assessment. Therefore, we evaluated: (1) trajectories of self-reported cognitive functioning, in cancer survivors with work capacity, (2) differences in trajectories of self-reported cognitive functioning between three work disability groups, and (3) explanatory factors of trajectories of self-reported cognitive functioning. Participants (n = 206) were assessed on self-reported cognitive functioning at three time points between two and four years after first day of sick leave. A statistically significant improvement in cognitive functioning was found in the total group (β = 4.62, SE = 0.91, p < 0.001). When comparing cancer survivors in different work disability groups, similar trajectories of cognitive functioning were observed. Fatigue was the only factor found to be associated with the reported trajectory (β = -0.23, SE = 0.086, p = 0.08). Self-perceived cognitive functioning scores remained considerably lower than the mean score of the general Dutch population, indicating that cognitive symptoms are a persistent problem in sick-listed cancer survivors and that evidence-based treatment options are warranted.