Chemotherapy with TMZ/VLP strongly reduced immunostaining for claudin-1 in distal parts of maturation ameloblasts. No gross changes were found in the treated mice, either in cell proliferation in the dental epithelium at the cervical loop or in the immunostaining pattern for NKCC1 in (non-ameloblastic) dental epithelium. The salivary glands in the treated mice contained strongly reduced immunostaining for NKCC1 in the basolateral membranes of acinar cells.
In this study the effect of TMZ/VLP on incisor formation was investigated in tissue sections of jaws from mice and compared with mice not treated with these drugs.
Based on the reduction of claudin-1 immunostaining in ameloblasts, TMZ/VLP may potentially influence forming enamel by changes in the structure of TJs structures in maturation ameloblasts, structures that are crucial for the selective passage of ions through the intercellular space between neighboring ameloblasts. The strongly reduced basolateral NKCC1 staining seen in fully-grown salivary glands of TMZ/VLP-treated mice suggests that TMZ/VLF could also influence ion transport in adult saliva by the salivary gland epithelium. This may cause treated children to be more susceptible to caries.
Chemotherapy treatment of cancer in children can influence formation of normal tissues, leading to irreversible changes in their structure and function. Tooth formation is susceptible to several types of chemotherapy that induce irreversible changes in the structure of enamel, dentin and dental root morphology. These changes can make the teeth more prone to fracture or to caries when they have erupted. Recent studies report successful treatment of brain tumors with the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with veliparib (VLP) in a glioblastoma in vivo mouse model. Whether these drugs also affect tooth formation is unknown.
The following aspects were studied using immunohistochemistry of specific protein markers including: (1) proliferation (by protein expression of proliferation marker Ki67) (2) a protein involved in paracellular ion transport (expression of tight junction (TJ) protein claudin-1) and (3) in transcellular passage of ions across the dental epithelium (expression of Na+, K+ 2Cl- cotransporter/NKCC1).