To quantify the difference in accuracy of adapt-to-position (ATP), adapt-to-rotation (ATR) and adapt-to-shape (ATS) workflows used in MRI-guided online adaptive radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma (PCa) by evaluating the margins required to accommodate intra-fraction motion of the clinical target volumes for prostate (CTVpros), prostate including seminal vesicles (CTVpros + sv) and gross tumor volume (GTV).
ATP, ATR and ATS workflows ensure equal coverage of the CTVpros for the current clinical margins. For the CTVpros + sv, ATS showed optimal performance. GTV coverage improves by additional adaptations to prostate rotations.
Clinical delineations of the CTVpros, CTVpros + sv and GTV of 24 patients with intermediate- and high-risk PCa, treated using ATS on a 1.5 T MR-Linac, were used for analysis. Delineations were available pre- and during beam-on. To simulate ATP and ATR workflows, we automatically generated the structures associated with these workflows using rigid transformations from the planning-MRI to the daily online MRIs. Clinical GTVs were analyzed as ATR GTVs and only ATP GTVs were simulated. Planning target volumes (PTVs) were generated with isotropic margins ranging 0.0-5.0 mm. The volumetric overlap was calculated between these PTVs and their corresponding clinical delineation on the MRI acquired during beam-on and averaged over all treatment fractions.
The PTV margin required to cover > 95% of the CTVpros was equal (2.5 mm) for all workflows. For the CTVpros + sv, this margin increased to 5.0, 4.0 and 3.5 mm in the ATP, ATR and ATS workflow, respectively. GTV coverage improved from ATP to ATR for margins up to 4.0 mm.