Minimally invasive evaluation of the clinically negative inguinal node in penile cancer: Dynamic sentinel node biopsy.


The presence of lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in penile cancer (PeCa). Due to limited sensitivity of currently available imaging modalities, invasive staging approaches remain indispensable for adequate nodal staging. As an alternative to radical inguinal lymphadenectomy and with the aim to reduce morbidity, staging strategies such as modified lymphadenectomy and dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) have been introduced. Over the years, DSNB evolved into a safe and reliable staging technique when performed in high volume centers. Recent enhancements of the procedure such as Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and the introduction of hybrid tracers have improved pre- and intraoperative sentinel node (SN) visualization. Other technologies such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles could have a potential future role to further refine DSNB. Future efforts should be aimed at optimizing diagnostic accuracy whilst minimizing perioperative morbidity.

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Urologic oncology
  • Publication date 17-11-2020

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