Trabectedin is a novel anticancer drug active against soft tissue sarcomas. Trabectedin is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by mdr1a/1b in rodents. Plasma and tissue distribution, and excretion of [(14)C]-trabectedin were evaluated in wild-type and mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice. In parallel, we investigated the toxicity profile of trabectedin by serial measurements of blood liver enzymes and general pathology. [(14)C]-trabectedin was extensively distributed into tissues, and rapidly converted into a range of unknown metabolic products. The excretion of radioactivity was similar in both genotypes. The plasma clearance of unchanged trabectedin was not reduced when P-gp was absent, but organs under wild type circumstances protected by P-gp showed increased trabectedin concentrations in mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice. Although hepatic trabectedin concentrations were not increased when P-gp was absent, mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice experienced more severe liver toxicity. P-gp plays a role in the in vivo disposition and toxicology of trabectedin.