The ABCB1 and ABCG2 efflux transporters limit brain disposition of the SYK inhibitors entospletinib and lanraplenib.


The highly selective Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK) inhibitors entospletinib and lanraplenib disrupt kinase activity and inhibit immune cell functions. They are developed for treatment of B-cell malignancies and autoimmunity diseases. The impact of P-gp/ABCB1 and BCRP/ABCG2 efflux transporters, OATP1a/1b uptake transporters and CYP3A drug-metabolizing enzymes on the oral pharmacokinetics of these drugs was assessed using mouse models. Entospletinib and lanraplenib were orally administered simultaneously at moderate dosages (10 mg/kg each) to female mice to assess the possibility of examining two structurally and mechanistically similar drugs at the same time, while reducing the number of experimental animals and sample-processing workload. The plasma pharmacokinetics of both drugs were not substantially restricted by Abcb1 or Abcg2. The brain-to-plasma ratios of entospletinib in Abcb1a/b-/-, Abcg2-/- and Abcb1a/b;Abcg2-/- mice were 1.7-, 1.8- and 2.9-fold higher, respectively, compared to those in wild-type mice. For lanraplenib these brain-to-plasma ratios were 3.0-, 1.3- and 10.4-fold higher, respectively. This transporter-mediated restriction of brain penetration for both drugs could be almost fully inhibited by coadministration of the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar, without signs of acute toxicity. Oatp1a/b and human CYP3A4 did not seem to affect the pharmacokinetics of entospletinib and lanraplenib, but mouse Cyp3a may limit lanraplenib plasma exposure. Unexpectedly, entospletinib and lanraplenib increased each other's plasma exposure by 2.6- to 2.9-fold, indicating a significant drug-drug interaction. This interaction was, however, unlikely to be mediated through any of the studied transporters or CYP3A. The obtained insights may perhaps help to further improve the safety and efficacy of entospletinib and lanraplenib.

More about this publication

Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • Volume 485
  • Pages 116911
  • Publication date 01-04-2024

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