Multi-wavelength fluorescence imaging with a da Vinci Firefly-a technical look behind the scenes.


The field of fluorescence-guided surgery builds on colored fluorescent tracers that have become available for different clinical applications. Combined use of complementary fluorescent emissions can allow visualization of different anatomical structures (e.g. tumor, lymphatics and nerves) in the same patient. With the aim to assess the requirements for multi-color fluorescence guidance under in vivo conditions, we thoroughly characterized two FDA-approved laparoscopic Firefly camera systems available on the da Vinci Si or da Vinci Xi surgical robot. In this process, we studied the cameras' performance with respect to the photophysical properties of the FDA-approved dyes Fluorescein and ICG. Our findings indicate that multi-wavelength fluorescence imaging of Fluorescein and ICG is possible using clinical-grade fluorescence laparoscopes, but critical factors for success include the photophysical dye properties, imaging system performance and the amount of accumulated dye. When comparing the camera performance, the Xi system provided more effective excitation (adaptions in the light source) and higher detection sensitivity (chip-on-a-tip and/or enhanced image processing) for both Fluorescein and ICG. Both systems can readily be used for multi-wavelength fluorescence imaging of Fluorescein and ICG under clinically relevant conditions. With that, another step has been made towards the routine implementation of multi-wavelength image-guided surgery concepts.

More about this publication

Journal of robotic surgery
  • Publication date 11-11-2020

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