Combined Therapy of AXL and HDAC Inhibition Reverses Mesenchymal Transition in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.



We used public databases and patient-derived DIPG cells to identify putative drivers of the mesenchymal transition in these tumors. Patient-derived neurospheres, xenografts, and allografts were used to determine the therapeutic potential of combined AXL/HDAC inhibition for the treatment of DIPG.


Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable type of pediatric brain cancer, which in the majority of cases is driven by mutations in genes encoding histone 3 (H3K27M). We here determined the preclinical therapeutic potential of combined AXL and HDAC inhibition in these tumors to reverse their mesenchymal, therapy-resistant, phenotype.


We identified AXL as a therapeutic target and regulator of the mesenchymal transition in DIPG. Combined AXL and HDAC inhibition had a synergistic and selective antitumor effect on H3K27M DIPG cells. Treatment of DIPG cells with the AXL inhibitor BGB324 and the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat resulted in a decreased expression of mesenchymal and stem cell genes. Moreover, this combination treatment decreased expression of DNA damage repair genes in DIPG cells, strongly sensitizing them to radiation. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that BGB324, like panobinostat, crosses the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, treatment of patient-derived DIPG xenograft and murine DIPG allograft-bearing mice with BGB324 and panobinostat resulted in a synergistic antitumor effect and prolonged survival.


Combined inhibition of AXL and HDACs in DIPG cells results in a synergistic antitumor effect by reversing their mesenchymal, stem cell-like, therapy-resistant phenotype. As such, this treatment combination may serve as part of a future multimodal therapeutic strategy for DIPG.

More about this publication

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • Volume 26
  • Issue nr. 13
  • Pages 3319-3332
  • Publication date 01-07-2020

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