Diagnostic performance of early increase in S100B or LDH as outcome predictor for non-responsiveness to anti-PD-1 monotherapy in advanced melanoma.


As a subset of advanced melanoma patients derive long-term benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy, early identification of non-responsiveness would enable an early switch to next line therapies. This study assessed if an early increase in S100B or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) could be predictive for non-responsiveness to anti-PD-1. We retrospectively analysed advanced melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 monotherapy. Serum S100B and LDH levels were measured at baseline and before every infusion. Non-response was defined as progression or death at 6 months. Marker cut-offs were defined based on > 95% specificity and feasibility in clinical practice. For validation an independent cohort was analysed. In total, 313 patients were included (166 patients in training cohort, 147 patients in validation cohort). Increase of > 50% in LDH or > 100% in S100B above upper limit of normal at week 6 compared to baseline was determined as criterion to positively test for non-responsiveness. In the validation cohort, obtained specificity of the combination test was > 95% with a positive predictive value of 82%; obtained sensitivity was lower (21%), with a negative predictive value of 55%. Early increase in S100B or LDH is a strong parameter for non-responsiveness to anti-PD-1 in advanced melanoma. Prospective confirmation is needed before clinical implementation.

More about this publication

Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • Volume 533
  • Pages 71-78
  • Publication date 13-06-2022

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