Resection of maxillary cancer often results in incomplete excision because of the tumour's proximity to important structures such as the orbit. To deal with this problem we prospectively investigated the feasibility of intraoperative imaging during maxillectomy to verify the planned resection margins. In total, six patients diagnosed with maxillary cancer listed for maxillectomy were included, irrespective of the histological type of tumour. Before resection, an accurate intended resection volume was delineated on diagnostic images. At the end of the operation we took a cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scan of the treated maxilla, after which the accuracy of the resection was quantitatively evaluated by comparing the preoperative resection plan and the images acquired intraoperatively, based on the anatomy. Further resection was then done if necessary and quantitatively evaluated with a second cone-beam CT scan. Postoperatively we compared the results of the scan with those of the histological examination. Of the six, two resections were reported pathologically as less than radical, each of which was detected by intraoperative CT and resulted in extensions of the original resections. The mean (SD) distance between the planned and the actual resection was 1.49 (2.78)mm. This suggests that intraoperative cone-beam CT imaging is a promising way to make an adequate intraoperative assessment of planned surgical margins of maxillary tumours. This allows for intraoperative resection margins to be improved, possibly leading to a better prognosis for the patient.