Technical feasibility and clinical evaluation of 4D-MRI guided liver SBRT on the MR-linac.



We successfully demonstrated technical feasibility of 4D-MRI guided SBRT in a cohort of 20 patients with liver metastases. However, substantial midposition drifts occurred which stress the need for intra-fraction motion management strategies to further increase the precision of treatment delivery.


Patients with liver metastases were included in this sub-study of the prospective UMBRELLA-II clinical trial. Patients received mid-position (midP) SBRT. The daily adapt-to-position workflow included localization, verification and intra-fraction tumor midP monitoring using 4D-MRI. Technical feasibility was established based on persistence of the treatment protocol, treatment time ≤1 h, no geographical miss and no unexpected acute toxicity grade >3. All 4D-MRIs were registered to the planning midP-CT and tumor midP and amplitude were calculated. Additionally, delivered target dose was accumulated incorporating the 4D-MRI intra-fraction tumor motion and evaluated with Monte-Carlo error simulations.


Image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an important local treatment for liver metastases. MRI-guidance enables direct tumor visualization, eliminating fiducial marker implantation. The purpose of this study was to test technical feasibility of our 4D-MRI guided liver SBRT workflow. Additionally, intra-fraction target motion and consequent target-coverage were studied.


20 patients with liver metastases were included and treated with 4D-MRI guided SBRT. Feasibility criteria were met in all-but-one patient. No grade ≥3 acute toxicity was observed. Group mean (M), systematic and random midP-drifts were 2.4 mm, 2.6 mm and 3.1 mm in CC-direction. 4D-MRI tumor CC-amplitudes were reduced compared to the simulation 4D-CT (M = -1.9 mm) and decreased during treatment (M = -1.4 mm). Dose accumulation showed adequate target-coverage on a population level.

More about this publication

Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • Volume 167
  • Pages 285-291
  • Publication date 01-02-2022

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