Currently, all soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are irradiated by the same regimen, disregarding possible subtype-specific radiosensitivities. To gain further insight, cellular radiosensitivity was investigated in a panel of sarcoma cell lines. Fourteen sarcoma cell lines, derived from synovial sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma origin, were submitted to clonogenic survival assays. Cells were irradiated with single doses from 1-8 Gy and surviving fraction (SF) was calculated from the resulting response data. Alpha/beta (a/b) ratios were inferred from radiation-response curves using the linear-quadratic (LQ)-model. Cellular radiosensitivities varied largely in this panel, indicating a considerable degree of heterogeneity. Surviving fraction after 2 Gy (SF2) ranged from 0.27 to 0.76 with evidence of a particular radiosensitive phenotype in only few cell lines. D37% on the mean data was 3.4 Gy and the median SF2 was 0.52. The median a/b was 4.9 Gy and in six cell lines the a/b was below 4 Gy. A fairly homogeneous radiation response was observed in myxoid liposarcoma cell lines with SF2 between 0.64 and 0.67. Further comparing sarcomas of different origin, synovial sarcomas, as a group, showed the lowest SF2 values (mean 0.35) and was significantly more radiosensitive than myxoid liposarcomas and leiomyosarcomas (P = 0.0084 and 0.024, respectively). This study demonstrates a broad spectrum of radiosensitivities across STS cell lines and reveals subtype-specific radiation responses. The particular cellular radiosensitivity of synovial sarcoma cells supports consideration of the different sarcoma entities in clinical studies that aim to optimize sarcoma radiotherapy.