BRCA1 and BRCA2 both function in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination (HR). Due to their HR defect, BRCA1/2-deficient cancers are sensitive to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis), but they eventually acquire resistance. Preclinical studies yielded several PARPi resistance mechanisms that do not involve BRCA1/2 reactivation, but their relevance in the clinic remains elusive. To investigate which BRCA1/2-independent mechanisms drive spontaneous resistance in vivo, we combine molecular profiling with functional analysis of HR of matched PARPi-naive and PARPi-resistant mouse mammary tumors harboring large intragenic deletions that prevent reactivation of BRCA1/2. We observe restoration of HR in 62% of PARPi-resistant BRCA1-deficient tumors but none in the PARPi-resistant BRCA2-deficient tumors. Moreover, we find that 53BP1 loss is the prevalent resistance mechanism in HR-proficient BRCA1-deficient tumors, whereas resistance in BRCA2-deficient tumors is mainly induced by PARG loss. Furthermore, combined multi-omics analysis identifies additional genes and pathways potentially involved in modulating PARPi response.